The author of this piece of writing does a 펀 초이스 side-by-side comparison and contrast of the part-time employment alternatives that are open to women in Japan and Korea. The salary gap between men and women in Japan is far worse than it is in other nations that are members of the OECD, and Japanese women also stand a larger risk of seeing their part-time jobs becoming automated than their counterparts in other countries.
In Japan, a job is regarded to be part-time employment if it requires less than 30 hours of labor per week from the employee. In addition, many part-time employment in Japan do not offer their employees with benefits such as health insurance or savings for retirement. In 2019, just 11.7% of employed women worked part-time jobs, whilst 8.2% of working men held part-time jobs. Nonetheless, these figures were far higher in Korea: 44.2% for women and 71.4% for males.
This is because over the course of the last few years in Japan, there has been a rise in the number of women who are older people who are working, as well as an increase in the number of women who have entered the labor force. This has resulted in this situation. The rate at which Japan’s population is quickly aging has also been increasing, and as a direct consequence of this trend, a larger proportion of Japan’s labor force is made up of women who are at least 65 years old. In addition to this, Japan’s low birth rates have resulted in fewer young people joining the workforce, which has led to a reduction in the country’s total labor force. This is due to the fact that fewer people are opting to have children. This suggests that employees from other countries are increasingly accepting positions in order to fill the hole left by workers who have migrated to Japan. These workers are filling occupations that were formerly held by Japanese workers.
As a direct result of this, there has been a large increase in the number of part-time jobs that are open to women in the Japanese labor market. In South Korea, where there is a low birth rate and where career chances for young guys are worsening, the scenario is quite similar. It has been postulated that the expenses associated with unstable employment are connected to falling marriage and birth rates, in addition to falling fertility rates. It’s possible that these shifts are being driven in part by the lower earnings that come with working half-time jobs. This is a particularly worrisome problem due to the fact that economic instability is compounded by low salaries. The number of women of working age in economically developed Asian countries such as Japan and South Korea has increased dramatically over the course of the last few decades. Researchers in the academic community, including Suzuki (2013) and Matsuda, have investigated how individuals in a variety of nations feel about the prospect of working part-time employment (2013).
Their research has shown that the kinds of part-time jobs that are open to women in Japan and Korea are highly distinct from one another, which is one of the conclusions that can be drawn from their study. In Korea, the largest gender gaps in labor force participation are seen among female managers and positions involving risk, whereas in Japan, the same gaps are seen among occupations such as sales and high skill jobs. In both countries, however, the gaps are largest among occupations that require a high level of education or training. In general, there is less of a gap between the sexes in terms of labor force participation in Korea. In addition, the proportion of women working in service occupations and clerical jobs in Japan is far greater than it is in Korea. This is in contrast to the situation in Korea, where it is substantially lower. In contrast to Korea, where a bigger proportion of the workforce is made up of employees who are engaged on a temporary basis, the proportion of workers in Japan who are employed on a full-time basis is far higher. One possible explanation for this disparity is that dependent employment vocations are more common in Korea than they are in Japan. Independent contractors make up a larger share of the labor force in Japan. The percentage of employed women who are on part-time schedules likewise differs significantly across the two countries. Women in Korea are more likely to select part-time jobs over full-time jobs, which adds to a bigger gender discrepancy in the labor force participation rates of men and women. Full-time jobs are more common in Korea.
In spite of the fact that part-time workers in Japan earn far better incomes than their counterparts in Korea, their schedules are significantly more stable. This may be partially explained by the prevalence of jobs in Korea that need just a modest degree of expertise, in addition to the economy’s reliance on contract labor. As a result of the bursting of its economic bubble in the 1990s, Japan has experienced an increase in regular employment, whereas Korea has seen an increase in part-time labor, as reported by the nations that make up the OECD and its figures on job growth. Korea has seen an increase in the number of people working part-time jobs. As a direct result of this, women in Korea are typically paid less than males in jobs that are equivalent, but Japanese women frequently have access to career opportunities that require higher levels of competence and more constant working hours.
In both Japan and Korea, there is a significant gender difference in terms of the employment options that are accessible to women on a part-time basis. There has been an increase in the number of young people in Korea who do not have jobs, which has contributed to the country’s experiencing economic losses due to inconsistent wages and falling salaries. This situation has been exacerbated by the fact that the unemployment rate for young people in Korea has been rising. Women with advanced degrees often have difficulties obtaining full-time employment, and as a result, these women are sometimes compelled to settle for part-time positions, which give far less financial stability. The majority of people who perform part-time jobs in Japan are either women who have prior work experience or children who need to combine their employment with other obligations, such as school or extracurricular activities. The rising proportion of the population that these professions represent continues to offer a barrier for people who are searching for full-time work, despite the fact that these positions often give more steady remuneration than those in Korea. In spite of the variations in the opportunities that are accessible to them in their respective countries, a significant number of women in both Korea and Japan struggle to make ends meet. This is due to the fact that they are more likely to hold part-time jobs as opposed to full-time positions that provide a stable income.
Women who have finished their degrees and have a college education will discover that part-time work gives the finest prospects for employment. This is true in both countries. Nevertheless, compared to childless women in South Korea, childless women in Japan have a smaller pay gap than childless women in South Korea do because Japanese women have a higher literacy rate than South Korean women. As a consequence of this, a significant number of Japanese women are able to get full-time work despite having a lesser degree of experience than males in professions that are otherwise equivalent. Since Japanese women have a higher average reading level than Korean women, Japanese women have a greater chance of attaining managerial and professional employment than their counterparts in Korea do. This is due to the fact that Japanese women are more educated than Korean women. Nonetheless, because there is no choice but to attend compulsory education in South Korea, a significant number of South Korean female workers have worse reading abilities than their Japanese counterparts.
Because of this, the whole female work force is now, on average, less competent than that of Japan, which has led to a fall in the number of opportunities that are accessible. Because of this, a large number of South Korean women have either chosen to leave their jobs or have been forced out of their positions as a consequence of the low reproduction rate and the tendency for families to place a large number of women in childcare facilities or other services that are comparable to these. As a direct result of this, a large number of South Korean women have either chosen to leave their jobs or have been driven out of their positions. As a direct result of the baby strike, there is now a disproportionately large number of women in their 30s who are working in South Korea in comparison to Japan, where the numbers are more evenly distributed. This is in stark contrast to the situation in Japan, where there are fewer women in their 30s who are working.
When they reach their 30s, many professional women in Korea make the decision to leave their careers behind so that they can focus their time and energy on raising their families rather than putting in long hours at the office. This allows them to devote more of their time and energy to their children. Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) and Maternity Leave are two examples of rules that the Japanese government has passed in an attempt to encourage working mothers to continue in the workforce. Another legislation that the Japanese government has established is the Family Leave Act. Notwithstanding all of these efforts, the proportion of Japanese women who hold executive roles is still much lower than the percentage of Japanese men who hold executive positions. In addition to this, women continue to make less money than men do long after they have left the workforce. This gap may be explained by the different perspectives that Korean and Japanese women have on the significance of pursuing jobs in addition to getting married.
As compared to their male counterparts in Japan, both the length of time that Japanese women spend working and the amount of money that they bring in comes out to be much lower. In addition, it is usual for Japanese women to be excluded from office practices such as socialising with coworkers after work or having drinks with them. This is especially prevalent in the business world. As a consequence of this, there is an unsaid gap in income between them and their male coworkers. Despite the fact that men in Japan only put in 41 minutes of unpaid labor like household chores and childcare, women in Japan put in 3 hours of this kind of work, making Japan one of the few OECD countries with such a large gender gap. Most OECD nations have a far smaller gap between the sexes. Several OECD nations have a far smaller gender disparity than the United States. The salary gap between men and women in South Korea is equal to that in other countries, with the exception of South Korea, where males work longer hours and have more business contacts than women do.